Shinikizo La Damu

Shinikizo la damu ni moja ya tatizo linaloathiri watu wengi duniani. Nini maana ya shinikizo la damu? Ni msukumo wa damu ulioko juu...


Shinikizo la damu ni moja ya tatizo linaloathiri watu wengi duniani.

Nini maana ya shinikizo la damu?

Ni msukumo wa damu ulioko juu kuliko inavyotakiwa kwa muda mrefu. Msukumo wa damu huitajika mwilini ili kusambaza chakula,oksijeni na kutoa uchafu.

Uanishaji wa shinikizo la damu

Uanishaji
Systolic BP
Diastolic BP
Kawaida (normal)
<120
<80
Prehypertension
120-139
80-89
Kali (mild hypertension)
140-159
90-99
Kali kiasi (moderate hypertension)
160-179
100-109
Kali sana (severe Hypertension)
≥180
≥110
Shinikizo la damu hupimwa kutumia kifaa kinachoitwa Sphygmomanometer

Shinikizo la damu husababishwa na nini?

Aina ya kwanza
Asilimia 90-95 sababu huwa hazijulikani na kitaalamu huitwa primary or essential hypertension. Ingawa vitu vifuatavyo vimehusishwa kupelekea kupata aina hii ya shinikizo la damu. Navyo ni:
  • Uvutaji sigara
  • Unene (visceral obesity)
  • Unywaji wa pombe
  • Upungufu wa madini ya potassium
  • Upungufu wa vitamin D
  • Kurithi
  • Umri mkubwa
  • Chumvi na madini ya sodium kwa ujumla
  • Ongezeko la kemikali kwenye figo (renin)
  • Kushindwa kufanyakazi kwa kichocheo kiitwacho insulin
Aina ya Pili
Asilimia 5 huwa na sababu dhahiri zinazopelekea kupata aina hii ya shinikizo la damu na huitwa kitaalamu secondary hypertension. Na sababu hizi ni:
  • Hali ya kukosa hewa usingizini (sleep Apnea)
  • Kasoro ya kuzaliwa nayo katika mshipa mkubwa wa damu (Coarctation of Aorta)
  • Saratani za figo (wilm’s tumor, renal cell carcinoma)
  • Saratani ya tezi iliyo juu ya figo (pheochromocytoma)
  • Ujauzito – wapo wakina mama wajawazito ambao hupata shinikizo la damu na huwa hatarini kupata kifafa cha mimba (eclampsia)
  • Magonjwa ya figo (renal artery stenosis, glomerulonephritis)

Dalili

Mara nyingi huwa hamna dalili zozote, na kama zikiwepo mgonjwa huwa na dalili zifuatazo
  • Uchovu
  • Maumivu ya kichwa
  • Kuhisi mapigo ya moyo kwenda haraka
  • Kichefuchefu
  • Kutapika
  • Damu kutoka puani
  • Kutoweza kuona vizuri (blurred vision)
  • Kusikia kelele masikioni
  • Na mara chache kuchanganyikiwa

Vipimo na uchunguzi

Huitaji kupima angalau mara tatu angalu wiki moja tofauti ilikuweza kusema mgonjwa ana shinikizo la damu kwa kutumia kifaa kinachoitwa kitaalamu Sphygmomanometer. Vipimo vingine ni:
  • Damu kuchunguza wingi wa lijamu mwilini (cholesterol), na pia vitu kama (BUN, na electrolytes)
  • Kipimo cha mkojo (Urinalysis)
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Echocardiography
  • Ultrasound ya mafigo

Matibabu

Lengo ni kuzuia madhara ambayo yanaweza kuletwa na shinikizo la damu. Dawa zifuatazo hutumika kutibu shinikizo la damu: dawa jamii ya Alpha blockers, dawa jamii ya Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), dawa jamii ya Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), dawa jamii ya Beta blocker, dawa jamii ya Calcium channel blocker, dawa jamii ya Diuretics, dawa jamii ya Renin inhibitors na dawa jamii ya Vasodilators.

Madhara yanayoweza kuletwa na shinikizo la damu

  • Kiharusi
  • Moyo kushindwa kufanya kazi ( congestive heart failure)
  • Madhara katika mshipa mkubwa wa damu ambapo ukuta wa ndani huchanika na damu hukusanyika katika ukuta wa mshipa huo(aortic dissection)
  • Magonjwa ya mishipa ya damu
  • Kushindwa kuona
  • Athari katika ubongo

Jinsi ya kuzuia shinikizo la damu

Chakula cha afya kisicho na mafuta mengi na chenye madini ya potassium kitaalamu kinaitwa DASH diet (dietary approaches to stop hypertension)
  • Mazoezi mara kwa mara- angalau nusu saa kwa siku
  • Kwa wavutaji sigara kuacha kuvuta sigara
  • Punguza au kama unaweza acha unywaji wa pombe ( kwa wanaume angalau bia 2 kwa siku na wanawake bia 1)
  • Punguza utumiaji wa chumvi hasa ya kuongeza mezani (usitumie zaidi ya gramu 1.5)
  • Punguza msongo mawazo
  • Hakikisha unakuwa kwenye uzito wa afya, kama uko kwenye uzito wa hatari fanya mpango wa kupunguza uzito.
  • Matumizi ya mafuta ya samaki husaidia kupunguza shinikizo la damu, kwa wenye shinikizo la damu.

NOTE: Tafadhari usitumie dawa bila ushauri wa Daktari
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Business, Financial and Investment news and tools: Shinikizo La Damu
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